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Found in Collection

Found in Collection (144)

While preparing for our June 2018 exhibit, Made in Montgomery, I found a portrait that struck my curiosity. According to our records, the portrait is believed to be of Dr. Daniel A. Wilson. Since portraits were generally made for prominent people, I wanted to learn more about Dr. Wilson.

           Portrait

According to multiple sources, Dr. Wilson was the first African-American physician in Montgomery County. Dr. Wilson received his degree from Hahnemann Hospital for homeopathic medicines in 1890. His accomplishment was so groundbreaking, that it was even published in the Norristown Herald on May 12, 1890.

 Wilson, Norristown Weekly Herald, Monday May 12, 1890

Dr. Wilson’s ability to graduate from Hahnemann was, in part, the result of a movement led by his own father, Rev. Amos Wilson. In 1839, the Norristown School Board established a public school on Powell Street exclusively for African Americans. [1] However, in the 1880s, Rev. Amos Wilson led a movement to desegregate Norristown schools.[2] This successful movement coincided with a larger, statewide, desegregation movement. Although an 1881 law made it illegal to segregate schools based on race, many Pennsylvania public schools either ignored or found a way to circumvent the law.[3] It was not until Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 that all public schools in Pennsylvania ended segregation.[4]

Despite the challenges of segregation, Dr. Wilson led a successful career as a physician. He lived on Elm Street in Norristown until his death in 1934. Recognizing his success, the Times Herald published his obituary on the front page of the December 22, 1934 paper.

Wilson Obit., Front page of Norristown Herald, Dec. 22, 1934

According to the second and third obituaries posted in the Times Herald on December 24th and 26th, his funeral service occurred at St. Augustine’s Episcopal Church (Norristown) and he was buried at Tremont Cemetery.

 Wilson Obit. 2


[1] Dan Kelley, “Blacks Came for Work, Gave So Much More,” Times Herald, http://www.timesherald.com/article/JR/20050724/NEWS01/307249998.

[2] Ibid.

[3] “Desegregation of Pennsylvania Schools,” Pennsylvania Heritage, http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/portal/communities/pa-heritage/desegregation-pennsylvania-schools.html.

[4] Ibid.

Thursday, 01 February 2018 20:32

The Academy Acorn

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Recently I was looking through a very old box labeled “Schools.”  I found some very old items relating several now defunct schools in Montgomery County, including the North Wales Academy and Business School.  There was a catalogue for the school for the 1884-1885 school year.  There were also several copies of a school periodical called The Academy Acorn.

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North Wales Academy can be seen on the lower left in the 1877 atlas

North Wales Academy was founded in 1867 by Samuel Umstead Brunner.  Since the original school was in Kulpsville, its name was the Kulpsville Academy at that time (less formally, it was often called Brunner Academy).  In 1871, the school moved to North Wales to take advantage of the newly built North Pennsylvania Railroad, according to Mrs. John M. Willis in her 1921 paper “The Brunner Academy of North Wales.”

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A photograph of the school in the 1884-1885 catalogue

With the move to North Wales, the school began taking boarders.  Many day students also attended.  The school hosted several lectures each year which were open to the public and free.  The school was co-ed and taught a college preparatory program as well as a business program.

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Small private schools at this time existed all over the county.  They were generally led by an individual and the school’s identity largely came from that individual.  Samuel Brunner was born and raised in Worcester Township, attending public school there until he went to Washington Hall in Trappe.  He attended Eastman’s Business College in Poughkeepsie before returning to Pennsylvania to work in Philadelphia.  He taught on and off throughout his younger years and spent one year teaching in a public school in Jenkintown before starting his own school.

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Samual Brunner from Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia of Montgomery County, Pennsylvania by Henry Wilson Ruoff

The school taught math, science, music, literature, ancient and modern languages, as well as book-keeping and telegraphy.  The Academy Acorn is a combination of articles about education (presumably by Brunner) about education and articles by the students themselves.  In the first issue, Brunner writes about the public school system and an article titled “Prepare for College,” which claims that Pennsylvania’s high schools do not properly prepare students for college.  Student articles include “The Growth of Intellectual Life during the Middle Ages,” “A Few Benefits of Physical Culture,” and “The Women and Shakspeare [sic].”

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The school did not outlast Professor Brunner, which was typical of these sorts of schools.  After he died in 1901, the building became a private home and was purchased in the 1940’s to be home of the local American Legion. 

Thursday, 25 January 2018 20:24

A Notable Squabble

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Last week, I was working through a box of German language booklets and I came across an odd one.  First, someone had added a cover to it, with an English title “Notable Squable between Rev. Frederick [sic] Waage and Rev. Daniel Weiser in Montgomery County.”  That’s not a translation of the German title, which is “Lichtschäutze oder Hülfe zur Wahrheit.”  My best translation is “Cleaning with light, or helping to find reality.”  Before delving into 88 pages of text, I decided to see what I could find out about the squabble.

Rev. Friedrich Waage first came to Pennsylvania in 1819 at the age of 22.  He was a native of the Duchy of Holstein in what was then Denmark, but is now Germany.  He studied at the University of Kiel before emigrating. 

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From "The Past and Present of St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Red Hill, Pennsylvania" by Raymond A. Kline

He settled in Chester County and began studying for the ministry with Rev. Friedrich Geisenheimer.  In 1829, he became pastor of St. Paul’s Lutheran Church in Red Hill.  Founded in 1739, Waage was the 12th pastor for the church, which was also known as the “Six Corner” Church.  At the time, it was part of the New Goschenhoppen Charge, consisting of five parishes.

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From "The Past and Present of St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Red Hill, Pennsylvania" by Raymond A. Kline

Besides serving the spiritual needs of the congregation, Waage was also the county’s first doctor of homeopathic medicine.  According to Theordore Bean’s History of Montgomery County, he first became interested in medicine to care for his ten children.  He began to practice more widely in 1840.

Rev. Daniel Weiser was born in Selingrove, PA, and a descendant of the famous Conrad Weiser of colonial times.  As a young man he served in the War of 1812 and trained as a nailsmith.  He was ordained a minister in 1824.  In 1833, he came to New Goschenhoppen Reformed church as its pastor.

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From A History of the Goshenhoppen Reformed Charge

The squabble, according to Edward Hocker’s 1929 article in the Times-Herald, began when Rev. Waage was invited to give an address at a local Fourth of the July celebration in 1836.  At that time, repeated toasts were given at any celebration of the Fourth, and perhaps Rev. Waage took part in some of them.  Early in 1837, a Reformed church publication, the Weekly Meesenger, published a letter from Weiser that criticized ministers who cavorted with intemperate people and condoned dancing.  Waage believed the piece was referring to him.

Then began the battle of the pamphlets, one of which is here at the Historical Society.  In 1838, Weiser brought a libel suit against Waage.  An arbitration hearing was held in Sumneytown.  The three arbitrators awarded Weiser six cents in damages and ordered Waage to pay $140 in court fees.  Most of “Cleaning with Light” is the transcript of these proceedings.  Weiser also gives an outline of his views on the Christian life and how he came to write the letter to the Weekly Messenger.

The decision of the court seems to have been the end of the issue.  Both men appear in histories of their respective churches and both are in books on the history of the county, like Bean's or Ruoff's.  None of them mention the feud, so perhaps it was forgotten.  It's  possible that the two men even made up themselves.  When Waage died in 1884, Weiser's son, Rev. C. Z. Weiser was one of his pallbearers.

This story comes to you from our “Other than that Mrs. Lincoln…” file.  Working through some papers belonging to the Rhoads family, I came across a newspaper article from the Atlanta Constitution dated Saturday, November 18, 1922.

The woman pictured below is Mrs. Varnetta Regar.  The article describes her as a “former Augusta society girl.”  On Christmas Eve, 1917, she eloped with Gordon R. Regar, son of Howard K. Regar, owner of the Rambo and Regar Knitting Mills.  She was a freshman in high school in Augusta when their romance began (the 1920 census lists her year of birth as 1901).   After a brief honeymoon, they held a “wild” farewell party when Gordon, a second lieutenant in the PA National Guard, sailed for France.

varnetta

After the war, the two lived at the Regar home in Norristown with Gordon’s parents at 1420 DeKalb Street (just down the road from our headquarters).  Varnetta described a raucous life, telling the newspaper that her husband taught her to smoke and drink.  The couple fought often, but would make up.  Then at a party in Philadelphia, the couple’s argument became physical.  Varnetta described the party as “terribly wild…no one thought of drinking anything less potent than whisky and soda or gin fizzes.”  Gordon attempted to drive home inebriated, but got lost.  The two got into a fist fight, each coming away with a black eye.

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The Globe Knitting Mill in Norristown, owned by the Ragar family

At that point, Varnetta returned south, having been assured by Gordon that he would handle the divorce.  Boy, did he!  He accused Varnetta throwing a knife at him, which she doesn’t deny in the article, but explains that she did when she saw Gordon kiss another girl.  So, Varnetta intended to get her divorce annulled and then file for divorce again, citing Gordon’s infidelity as the cause.

I wasn’t able to find out if she ever did get the second divorce, but I do know the couple never reunited, which is probably a good thing.  Gordon later married a woman named Helene Collins and moved to southern California.  He passed away in 1976.  Since the article doesn’t list Varnetta’s maiden name, I wasn’t able to find out what happened her after the divorce.   

While this story and its pictures took up much of the front page, a smaller item notes that the Fascists, led by Mussolini, had just taken control of the Italian government.  

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Mussolini, below the fold

Wednesday, 10 January 2018 21:37

Painting the Markley Family

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At HSMC, we have a collection of portraits. While researching the history of these portraits, we discovered three of them were painted by renowned artist, Jacob Eichholtz (1776 – 1842). Starting as a sign painter and copper smith, Eichholtz did not begin painting portraits until 1805.[1] After meeting Thomas Sully in Lancaster, PA in 1808, Eichholtz turned his attention to improving his technique.[2] By 1815 he sold his local business to devote the rest of his life to painting.[3] To learn more about Eichholtz’s history, please visit The National Gallery of Art .

Samuel Markley

     Portrait of Samuel Markley, 1812

Since Eichholtz is a well-known Pennsylvanian artist, we wanted to learn more about the subjects of these three portraits. The portraits depict three men from the Markley family: Samuel, John, and Philip Markley (1789-1834). Based on the design, technique, and material used to create the portraits, we believe the portraits were created at different times in Eichholtz’s career. With dark colors painted onto a wooden panel, the portrait of Samuel Markley demonstrates Eichholtz’s early work. Based on the few records we have on this portrait, we believe it was completed around 1812.

John Markley

                                                            Portrait of John Markley                                                                  

 

Although we do not know much about Samuel Markley, our research revealed more about John and Philip’s service to Montgomery County. John Markley of Norristown was a Montgomery County sheriff in the late eighteenth century.[4] John was also a prominent member of the Republican Party. Like his father John, Philip Markley pursued a career in politics. From 1819 to 1823, Philip became a State Senator for the seventh district of PA.[5] Our records indicate that Philip’s portrait was completed in 1824, but there is no date given for John’s portrait. Given the improved detail in the portraits, when compared to Samuel’s, it seems likely that John’s portrait was likely finished a few years prior to Philip's.

Philip Markley

Portrait of Philip S. Markley, 1824

 


[1] National Gallery of Art, Eichholtz, Jacob Biography, https://www.nga.gov/Collection/artist-info.1265.html.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Pennsylvania State Senate, Philip S. Markley: Biography, http://www.legis.state.pa.us/cfdocs/legis/BiosHistory/MemBio.cfm?ID=4984&body=S.

[5] Ibid.

Thursday, 21 December 2017 19:39

Merry Christmas!

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As the Historical Society closes for Christmas and New Year’s, I thought I’d share some Christmas cards from our collection.  These cards from the Preston Family Papers.  Mary Krause Preston was an early trustee of the Historical Society of Montgomery County.  Her daughters, Emily and Katharine, continued the family’s involvement.  Katharine was a trustee for over 30 years while Emily served as librarian for ten years until her death in 1942.  They are frequently noted in our records as “The Misses Preston.”

The tag above includes a handwritten Christmas message.  The picture also appears to be hand drawn, perhaps by Katharine.  A remembrance of Katharine printed in the Bulletin after her death in 1952 says, “Her finest effort and greatest joy… was in the painting of small watercolors.”

This card was sent out by the United States Naval Academy.

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The Preston sisters lived their entire lives in Norristown.  Their house stood where the annex to the Montgomery County Courthouse now stands.  They were educated at the sort of private girls’ school, Miss Hayman’s, that abounded in the 19th century.  Upon Katharine’s death, many antiques, books, and other items were donated to the Historical Society.

This final card was issued by the People’s Bank of Norristown.  It’s a small envelope, perhaps meant to hold cash.

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Everyone at the Historical Society of Montgomery County wishes a merry Christmas and happy new year to all our members!

Wednesday, 13 December 2017 21:51

Rev. Mentzer and Baptists in Montgomery County

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Montgomery County is home to people of various religious faiths. Interestingly, when we research our genealogy, researching specific religions can uncover new insights to our ancestor’s lives. A recent accession is a perfect example for how religion can help us research our family history.

We recently acquired this beautiful, pastel photograph of Rev. William Harrison Mentzer (1844-1921) and his wife Alzina Jenkins (1867-1952). On its own, this photograph does not reveal much information about Rev. Mentzer and Alzina. However, knowing Rev. Mentzer served in various Baptist churches in Montgomery County helped us uncover more information about his life.

picture

So what do we know about Montgomery County Baptists? According to Rev. David Spencer, the first known Baptists arrived in the area in the late 17th century.[1] Many of these original Baptists can trace their roots to Wales.[2] As the religion gained attention, many Quaker families converted to the Baptist religion. This was a result of a theological divide within the Quaker church around 1691.[3] However, although Baptism predates the founding of Montgomery County, the majority of Baptist churches in the area were not founded until the 19th century.[4] This surge in construction of Baptist churches coincided with Rev. Mentzer’s ministries.

Thanks to an autobiography printed on April 14 1921 in the Lansdale Reporter, we were able to learn more about Rev. Mentzer. He was born in Chambersburg, PA on January 25, 1844. As a child, he was raised as a Lutheran. However, when he moved to Bells Mills, he began attending the Logans Valley Baptist Church. On January 29, 1865, he officially became a baptized Baptist. Shortly after his baptism, Mentzer join the Union Army and served until the end of the war in April 1865.

After the Civil War, Mentzer decided to attend the University at Lewisburg (present day Bucknell) and later Crozer Theological Seminary to become a Reverend. Over the course of 47 years, Rev. Mentzer served Baptist Churches throughout Montgomery County and Eastern Pennsylvania. Rev. Mentzer served in these Montgomery County towns: Lansdale, North Wales, Royersford, and Ambler.


[1] Rev. David Spencer, Early Baptists of Philadelphia, Philadelphia: William Syckelmoore, 1877, 18

[2] Ibid.

[3] Spencer, Early Baptists of Philadelphia, 1691, 27.

[4] Clifton S. Hunsicker, Montgomery County Pennsylvania: A History Vol. I, Lewis Historical Publishing Company, INC, NY 1923, 123.

Thursday, 07 December 2017 21:07

The Montgomery County Almshouse

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The Almshouse at the turn of the century

The Montgomery County Almshouse originally began serving the poor of the county in 1808.  It had been built on 265 acres that the county purchased from Abraham Gotwalt in Upper Providence Township (the county would later add an additional 31 acres to the property).

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A view of the river

The first steward was Jacob Barr and his wife served as matron.  They earned $400 per year.  Over the 19th century, fire struck the almshouse three times, destroying most of the records of the early decades.  We do know that the number of people coming to the almshouse was increasing because the county approved the building of a new facility in 1870.  That building was completed just before the original building was completely destroyed by fire in 1872.

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Undated inmate register

The Historical Society records for the almshouse begin in 1873.  Our archives has 3 registers that end in 1913 and three inmate record books that cover the years 1913 to the 1930’s. 

People who came to the almshouse were not simply housed.  They were expected to work either on the farm or in the residence.  Male and female inmates were separated, though Edward Hocker tells of a love triangle between a female inmate and a gardener employed by the home.  The steward tried to split them up, but the inmate climbed out the window one night, met up with the gardener and ran off to be married in Norristown (Times-Herald, Oct. 2, 1942).

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List of purchases from a 1902 cash book

Children who were born at the almshouse were only allowed to stay until they were old enough to be indentured to local families.  By 1882, however, the state passed a law, allowing children between 2 and 16 only 60 days in the almshouse.  This was to save the expense of running a school.  The Children’s Aid Society of Montgomery County soon took responsibility for the children.

In the late 19th century, the position of steward was used as a political reward, and easy going stewards allowed tramps to wander over from Chester county for a hot meal and good night’s sleep.  The county comptroller put an end to that practice.  One of those tramps later became famous as a folk artist.  He repaid the almshouse with a painting.

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The almhouse painted by inmate Charles Hoffman in the 1870's.

 

Over the years, many changes came to the almshouse.  The small infirmary was replaced by a hospital building in 1900, that in turn was replaced in 1941.  In 1952, the “County Home” as it was then called, was renamed The Charles Johnson Home, and then it became the Montgomery County Geriatric and Rehabilitation Center in 1972, reflecting a change in the institution’s focus.

Source: Lichtenwalner, Muriel N., 175th anniversary of Montgomery County Geriatric and Rehabilitation Center; progress through caring (1983)

Thursday, 30 November 2017 21:24

Dogs and Taxes

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Earlier this week I came across a small collection of papers concerning a local dog tax.  The papers span several decades and list Norristown dog owners and their assessments.

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Today in Montgomery County, dogs are licensed by the county for a nominal fee.  In the 19th century, we found two reasons for the dog tax.

In a 1955 article “Tax Experiments Make a Bewildering Record,” Norris (aka Edward Hocker) writes about how a national economic crisis, generally called the Panic of 1837, led Pennsylvania and several other states to repudiate their debts and suspend interest payments.  In an effort to shore up the state coffers, the legislature sought new taxes.   According to Hocker, the state taxed gold watches, pleasure carriages, stocks, cattle, and eventually, dogs.

Now, Hocker may not have seen our tax records, which show dogs being taxed as early as 1834.  It could also be the tax was actually started in response to an earlier recession.  In any case the tax seems to have expired and restarted.  Our collection has assessments for the years 1834 – 1836, 1838, 1852, 1854, 1862, and 1867.

Our records suggest a different reason for the tax on dogs, as shown by this 1829 petition of citizens from several townships, and is couched in patriotic language of developing the United States’ developing wool industry.  The tax on dogs in this case, would create a fund to compensate the owners of sheep who were attacked by dogs. 

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Whatever the reason, the tax records show some interesting things.  Most of the people assessed have dogs, that is, males.  Only a few, ahem, female dogs are listed.  One wonders how the species survived.  The tax on dogs in this 1867 list was 75 cents, while females were taxed a full dollar, so that might explain the difference. 

In this list, you can see the Bank of Montgomery County had two dogs, perhaps as guard dogs. 

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Here, you can see the name of General Winfield Scott Hancock’s father, B. F. Hancock, who owned one dog.

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Wednesday, 15 November 2017 21:28

Commemorating the First Passenger Steamboat

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During our inventory project, we uncovered a small, decorative tile. At first glance, this tile may not appear to have much connection to Montgomery County history. However, upon closer inspection of the detailed artwork, we realized the steamboat depicted on the tile was inspired by the first passenger steamboat used in the United States.

tile

Made in Doylestown, PA, this decorative tile was inspired by John Fitch’s steamboat. In 1785, Fitch, who suffered from rheumatism, began designing a steam engine to make it easier for people to travel.[1] Once he realized a steam engine had already been invented in England, Fitch sought to improve his engine and attach it to passenger boats.[2] Despite difficulty acquiring investors, Fitch managed to build his steamboat and test it on the Schuylkill and Delaware Rivers.

Fitch Steamboat

On August 22, 1787, Fitch demonstrated his invention to members of the Constitutional Convention on the Delaware River between Philadelphia and Trenton.[3] Although many people were impressed by the steamboat, Fitch continued to struggle with finding investors. Fitch’s steamboat carried passengers between Philadelphia and Trenton until 1791. Unable to compete financially with stagecoaches, Fitch was forced to end his passenger steamboat service.[4] In 1798, Fitch died in Bardstown at the age of 55. Although Fitch failed to maintain a passenger steamboat enterprise, his work set the stage for Robert Fulton to further improve the steamboat design in 1807.[5]


[1] “The Legacy of John Fitch,” Historic Craven Hall & The John Fitch Steamboat Museum, http://www.craven-hall.org/fitch-steamboat-museum/the-legacy-of-john-fitch/.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

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