Found in Collection

Found in Collection (163)

Thursday, 22 March 2018 17:56

The Rittenhouse Farm

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rittenhouse protrait

Over the last few years, we’ve written several pieces on David Rittenhouse, the colonial American polymath and first director of the US Mint. If you missed them, here’s an article on Rittenhouse’s surveyor’s level, and here’s one on his life and whether or not he was evil (anybody else happy Timeless is back on NBC?)

Well, last week I came across about three dozen photographs of the Rittenhouse farm. The farm was located in what is now East Norriton. These photographs date to 1922 when Herbert T. Ballad, founder and owner of the Ballard Knitting Company in Norristown renovated the farmhouse.


The front of the farmhouse before the renovations

The work on the farmhouse was extensive.  Ballard added a new wing, redirected the driveway and a small stream.  The original barn was demolished and the stones were reused in the renovations of the house.


The barn before it was demolished


The barn after demolition

Here workers dig a trench to drain the cellar and for phone and electrical lines.


A note on the back of this photo says that the springhouse was used until 1928, when a well was drilled. This was promtped by H. T. Ballard's hospitalization with a fever. His son, H. T. Ballard, Jr., suspected typhoid fever and had the water tested. The results came back that it was not fit for human consumption.


This photo shows a boxwood bush that was supposedly one of four such bushes given to Rittenhouse by Marie Antoinette. The queen was an amateur astronomer and admirer of Rittenhouse. She gave the bushes to Benjamin Franklin during his time in Paris to deliver to Rittenhouse.

The house was originally built in 1749 by Matthias and Elizabeth Rittenhouse, David’s parents. Ballard purchased the property in December, 1921, from Herman D. Weidenbaugh who had owned the farm since 1904.


I love this picture because it gives an idea of what the surrounding area looked like at the time.  The whole project went from April to September 1922.  H. T. Ballard moved to Florida upon his retirement in 1935, but his son continued to live in the house with his family until 1944. The building is now part of the Valley Forge Medical Center.

Wednesday, 14 March 2018 20:43

Swivel Chairs

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As we prepare for our Made in Montgomery exhibit, which opens June 27, 2018, I was excited to learn that one of our chairs is an early example of a swivel chair.

Speaker's Chair

While the craftsman of this chair is unknown, its intricate detail suggests it may have been created in Philadelphia in the late 1800s. Made from mahogany, leather, and cast iron, this chair is a perfect example of 19th century swivel chairs. Although swivel chairs are believed to have been invented in the 18th century, this style of chair was not widely produced until the late 19th century. This was due to the necessity for a strong cast iron mechanism that both supported the weight of a person and allowed them to turn the chair without standing.

Although swivel chairs were around prior to the 19th century, no one had patented a design for this type of chair. This changed in 1853 when Peter Ten Eyck patented an American swivel chair. Unlike the cast iron mechanism used for this chair, Eyck’s design used a wooden construction and steel rockers. See how the two designs compare:


So who used this chair? Interestingly, this high back swivel chair was known as the “Speaker’s Chair” and was used by Henry K. Boyer in the PA House of Representatives. Boyer was a Republican who served the 7th District for six terms (1883-1890, 1893-1894, and 1897-1898). During his service, Boyer was elected as the Speaker of the PA House of Representatives three separate times (1887, 1889-1890, and 1897). Based on our records, we cannot determine if Boyer used this chair for all three terms as Speaker or if he only used it during one term. While we do not know precisely when Boyer used it, this chair certainly provides an example of superb 19th century craftsmanship.

Thursday, 08 March 2018 21:44

Professor J. E. Reilley

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In the 1880’s, there was only one place to go for dancing instruction in Norristown, Professor J. E. Reilley’s class held weekly at Meeh’s Hall. Professor Reilley held his classes from September to May. At the end of May, the class would perform publicly for their final exam.

Below is an invitation to the 1888 event.


According to an accompanying newspaper article, 32 young ladies and 6 gentleman performed. The ladies are listed each with what they were wearing. Kathie and Emily Preston would blue Canton crepe trimmed with surah and lace while Miss Katie Haines wore pink chaille and garnet velvet.  The Preston sisters were later very active members of the Historical Society. Emily would have been about 13 in 1888 and Katherine about 15.

The program was long with several solos and group dances. Miss Alice Edmunds “one of the prettiest girls in the class” performed a scarf dance. Miss Eva McGinnis, dance “Comin’ Thro’ the Rye” while holding a bunch rye. The entire class danced around a maypole.

According to the newspaper, “The affair was a complete success, and Prof. Reilley is to be hearily congratulated for his good fortune with the pupils, and thanked for his painstaking care in their instructions.”

Reilley was born in the US to Irish parents, but I was unable to discover when he first came to Norristown. He continued teaching dancing until he died in Norristown in 1911.

Thursday, 01 March 2018 20:57

Industries and business in 1891

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Recently we received an interesting new accession, a business directory for Montgomery and Bucks counties from 1891. Need a stove in Bridgeport? A house painted in Ardmore? What about a plumber in Jenkintown? This fine book provides a lengthy description of each business. The business listings also have many illustrations of equipment.




This image appears by a description for Alfred S. Kohl, a plumber in Jenkintown. The book describes how he won a medal from the Franklin Institute for his exhibitions there. The accompanying image appears to be a “necessary.” The piece also notes that Kohl is a gentleman of “high repute and standing in the social scale.”

In Ardmore, we find Franklin Spohn, who is listed as a purveyor of table delicacies. The description lists “oysters, poultry, game, fruits – both foreign and domestic, fresh and salt fish, meats of every description, green groceries, etc.” In addition, Mr. Spohn is noted as a “man of high social standing and extraordinary business capacity.”

Souderton has some of the more interesting listings including William Souder who made rims and spokes, and H. S. Souder a seller of cigars and packing boxes. Charles H. Schantz was an artistic coach and carriage painter with a “fine reputation.” Need a buttonhole? Look no further than S. D. Yocum. He and his two employees make machine buttonholes on the New Singer Machine. Finally, there is M. S. Stover, the town’s “tonsorial artist” (a barber who specializes in shaving). The book says,

“His tonsorial department is neatly arranged and contains two finely upholstered, comfortable chairs, while cigars, chewing and smoking tobacco, cigarettes, pipes, canes, etc., are kept in this establishment for the convenience of the costumers.”

For dining, A. R. News kept an “eating saloon” in Lansdale serving “fried, stewed and raw oysters, fish cakes, oyster pie and a variety of tempting articles of food.”

Several woman run businesses appear throughout the book, including the Zeigler Hotel in Harleysville, run by Mrs. C. Zeigler and Mrs. M. D. Jenkins, a dressmaker in Bridgeport.

Certain businesses appear in almost every town that have now all but disappeared: harness makers, blacksmiths, wheelwrights, and coal dealers. Other companies were rare even then like the Montgomery Web Company which made elastic and non-elastic web for men’s suspenders. There’s one bicycle seller, who also sold typewriters in Rosemont.


My favorite of all is A. J. Reading, V. S. (I hope the V. S. stands for “veterinary science”) dealer in tonic vermifuge, a worm destroyer for horses. He offers samples for sixty cents.  I'm happy to say no images accompanied that article.

Thursday, 22 February 2018 21:40

Norristown Public Library

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Today, the Montgomery County-Norristown Library consists of the central library in Norristown, four branches, and a bookmobile.  Like thousands of libraries across the country, it is a public library, supported by taxes.  But this was not the original model of the Norristown Library or the many libraries across the county.

Lending libraries began in the 18th century as private enterprises, more along the lines of a video store (if anyone remembers those).  They were funded through the subscriptions of individuals.  In 1794, ninety families in the central part of Montgomery County decided to start the Norristown Library Company. 

Nor lib

The library had several different homes until 1824 when a building was built by the trustees at a cost of $153.43. 

To become a member of the library, a person had to buy a share.  In 1912, shares were $5 each.  A shareholder still paid $1 per year to borrow books from the library and non-shareholders could borrow books for $2 per year.  Browsing was free.

lib stock

The Historical Society of Montgomery County has many stock certificates from the Norristown Library Company.  Most of them were donated by William F. Slingluff in 1930.  The library company was still a subscription library at that time, and it looks as though Mr. Slingluff actually transferred the stock to the historical society.

We also have a printed catalogue from 1853, which is also the year the library moved from the small building above, to a new building at DeKalb at Penn Streets.


From looking over the catalogue as well as the bills from Wanamaker’s, it looks like the subscribers read more non-fiction than fiction.

Here’s one of the bills (notice the $2 charge for a copy of Huckleberry Finn).

book bill

The Norristown Library Company remained a private subscription library well into the 20th century.  However, in 1937, the McCann Library, a public library run by the Norristown School District closed its doors.  Many in the community wanted to see the library company become a public library open to all for free.  In 1942, with the backing of the borough, the Norristown Library did just that. 

While preparing for our June 2018 exhibit, Made in Montgomery, I found a portrait that struck my curiosity. According to our records, the portrait is believed to be of Dr. Daniel A. Wilson. Since portraits were generally made for prominent people, I wanted to learn more about Dr. Wilson.


According to multiple sources, Dr. Wilson was the first African-American physician in Montgomery County. Dr. Wilson received his degree from Hahnemann Hospital for homeopathic medicines in 1890. His accomplishment was so groundbreaking, that it was even published in the Norristown Herald on May 12, 1890.

 Wilson, Norristown Weekly Herald, Monday May 12, 1890

Dr. Wilson’s ability to graduate from Hahnemann was, in part, the result of a movement led by his own father, Rev. Amos Wilson. In 1839, the Norristown School Board established a public school on Powell Street exclusively for African Americans. [1] However, in the 1880s, Rev. Amos Wilson led a movement to desegregate Norristown schools.[2] This successful movement coincided with a larger, statewide, desegregation movement. Although an 1881 law made it illegal to segregate schools based on race, many Pennsylvania public schools either ignored or found a way to circumvent the law.[3] It was not until Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 that all public schools in Pennsylvania ended segregation.[4]

Despite the challenges of segregation, Dr. Wilson led a successful career as a physician. He lived on Elm Street in Norristown until his death in 1934. Recognizing his success, the Times Herald published his obituary on the front page of the December 22, 1934 paper.

Wilson Obit., Front page of Norristown Herald, Dec. 22, 1934

According to the second and third obituaries posted in the Times Herald on December 24th and 26th, his funeral service occurred at St. Augustine’s Episcopal Church (Norristown) and he was buried at Tremont Cemetery.

 Wilson Obit. 2

[1] Dan Kelley, “Blacks Came for Work, Gave So Much More,” Times Herald,

[2] Ibid.

[3] “Desegregation of Pennsylvania Schools,” Pennsylvania Heritage,

[4] Ibid.

Thursday, 01 February 2018 20:32

The Academy Acorn

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Recently I was looking through a very old box labeled “Schools.”  I found some very old items relating several now defunct schools in Montgomery County, including the North Wales Academy and Business School.  There was a catalogue for the school for the 1884-1885 school year.  There were also several copies of a school periodical called The Academy Acorn.

NW Map 1

North Wales Academy can be seen on the lower left in the 1877 atlas

North Wales Academy was founded in 1867 by Samuel Umstead Brunner.  Since the original school was in Kulpsville, its name was the Kulpsville Academy at that time (less formally, it was often called Brunner Academy).  In 1871, the school moved to North Wales to take advantage of the newly built North Pennsylvania Railroad, according to Mrs. John M. Willis in her 1921 paper “The Brunner Academy of North Wales.”


A photograph of the school in the 1884-1885 catalogue

With the move to North Wales, the school began taking boarders.  Many day students also attended.  The school hosted several lectures each year which were open to the public and free.  The school was co-ed and taught a college preparatory program as well as a business program.


Small private schools at this time existed all over the county.  They were generally led by an individual and the school’s identity largely came from that individual.  Samuel Brunner was born and raised in Worcester Township, attending public school there until he went to Washington Hall in Trappe.  He attended Eastman’s Business College in Poughkeepsie before returning to Pennsylvania to work in Philadelphia.  He taught on and off throughout his younger years and spent one year teaching in a public school in Jenkintown before starting his own school.


Samual Brunner from Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia of Montgomery County, Pennsylvania by Henry Wilson Ruoff

The school taught math, science, music, literature, ancient and modern languages, as well as book-keeping and telegraphy.  The Academy Acorn is a combination of articles about education (presumably by Brunner) about education and articles by the students themselves.  In the first issue, Brunner writes about the public school system and an article titled “Prepare for College,” which claims that Pennsylvania’s high schools do not properly prepare students for college.  Student articles include “The Growth of Intellectual Life during the Middle Ages,” “A Few Benefits of Physical Culture,” and “The Women and Shakspeare [sic].”


The school did not outlast Professor Brunner, which was typical of these sorts of schools.  After he died in 1901, the building became a private home and was purchased in the 1940’s to be home of the local American Legion. 

Thursday, 25 January 2018 20:24

A Notable Squabble

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Last week, I was working through a box of German language booklets and I came across an odd one.  First, someone had added a cover to it, with an English title “Notable Squable between Rev. Frederick [sic] Waage and Rev. Daniel Weiser in Montgomery County.”  That’s not a translation of the German title, which is “Lichtschäutze oder Hülfe zur Wahrheit.”  My best translation is “Cleaning with light, or helping to find reality.”  Before delving into 88 pages of text, I decided to see what I could find out about the squabble.

Rev. Friedrich Waage first came to Pennsylvania in 1819 at the age of 22.  He was a native of the Duchy of Holstein in what was then Denmark, but is now Germany.  He studied at the University of Kiel before emigrating. 


From "The Past and Present of St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Red Hill, Pennsylvania" by Raymond A. Kline

He settled in Chester County and began studying for the ministry with Rev. Friedrich Geisenheimer.  In 1829, he became pastor of St. Paul’s Lutheran Church in Red Hill.  Founded in 1739, Waage was the 12th pastor for the church, which was also known as the “Six Corner” Church.  At the time, it was part of the New Goschenhoppen Charge, consisting of five parishes.

six corners

From "The Past and Present of St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Red Hill, Pennsylvania" by Raymond A. Kline

Besides serving the spiritual needs of the congregation, Waage was also the county’s first doctor of homeopathic medicine.  According to Theordore Bean’s History of Montgomery County, he first became interested in medicine to care for his ten children.  He began to practice more widely in 1840.

Rev. Daniel Weiser was born in Selingrove, PA, and a descendant of the famous Conrad Weiser of colonial times.  As a young man he served in the War of 1812 and trained as a nailsmith.  He was ordained a minister in 1824.  In 1833, he came to New Goschenhoppen Reformed church as its pastor.

new goshenhoppen

From A History of the Goshenhoppen Reformed Charge

The squabble, according to Edward Hocker’s 1929 article in the Times-Herald, began when Rev. Waage was invited to give an address at a local Fourth of the July celebration in 1836.  At that time, repeated toasts were given at any celebration of the Fourth, and perhaps Rev. Waage took part in some of them.  Early in 1837, a Reformed church publication, the Weekly Meesenger, published a letter from Weiser that criticized ministers who cavorted with intemperate people and condoned dancing.  Waage believed the piece was referring to him.

Then began the battle of the pamphlets, one of which is here at the Historical Society.  In 1838, Weiser brought a libel suit against Waage.  An arbitration hearing was held in Sumneytown.  The three arbitrators awarded Weiser six cents in damages and ordered Waage to pay $140 in court fees.  Most of “Cleaning with Light” is the transcript of these proceedings.  Weiser also gives an outline of his views on the Christian life and how he came to write the letter to the Weekly Messenger.

The decision of the court seems to have been the end of the issue.  Both men appear in histories of their respective churches and both are in books on the history of the county, like Bean's or Ruoff's.  None of them mention the feud, so perhaps it was forgotten.  It's  possible that the two men even made up themselves.  When Waage died in 1884, Weiser's son, Rev. C. Z. Weiser was one of his pallbearers.

This story comes to you from our “Other than that Mrs. Lincoln…” file.  Working through some papers belonging to the Rhoads family, I came across a newspaper article from the Atlanta Constitution dated Saturday, November 18, 1922.

The woman pictured below is Mrs. Varnetta Regar.  The article describes her as a “former Augusta society girl.”  On Christmas Eve, 1917, she eloped with Gordon R. Regar, son of Howard K. Regar, owner of the Rambo and Regar Knitting Mills.  She was a freshman in high school in Augusta when their romance began (the 1920 census lists her year of birth as 1901).   After a brief honeymoon, they held a “wild” farewell party when Gordon, a second lieutenant in the PA National Guard, sailed for France.


After the war, the two lived at the Regar home in Norristown with Gordon’s parents at 1420 DeKalb Street (just down the road from our headquarters).  Varnetta described a raucous life, telling the newspaper that her husband taught her to smoke and drink.  The couple fought often, but would make up.  Then at a party in Philadelphia, the couple’s argument became physical.  Varnetta described the party as “terribly wild…no one thought of drinking anything less potent than whisky and soda or gin fizzes.”  Gordon attempted to drive home inebriated, but got lost.  The two got into a fist fight, each coming away with a black eye.

Globe mills

The Globe Knitting Mill in Norristown, owned by the Ragar family

At that point, Varnetta returned south, having been assured by Gordon that he would handle the divorce.  Boy, did he!  He accused Varnetta throwing a knife at him, which she doesn’t deny in the article, but explains that she did when she saw Gordon kiss another girl.  So, Varnetta intended to get her divorce annulled and then file for divorce again, citing Gordon’s infidelity as the cause.

I wasn’t able to find out if she ever did get the second divorce, but I do know the couple never reunited, which is probably a good thing.  Gordon later married a woman named Helene Collins and moved to southern California.  He passed away in 1976.  Since the article doesn’t list Varnetta’s maiden name, I wasn’t able to find out what happened her after the divorce.   

While this story and its pictures took up much of the front page, a smaller item notes that the Fascists, led by Mussolini, had just taken control of the Italian government.  


Mussolini, below the fold

Wednesday, 10 January 2018 21:37

Painting the Markley Family

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At HSMC, we have a collection of portraits. While researching the history of these portraits, we discovered three of them were painted by renowned artist, Jacob Eichholtz (1776 – 1842). Starting as a sign painter and copper smith, Eichholtz did not begin painting portraits until 1805.[1] After meeting Thomas Sully in Lancaster, PA in 1808, Eichholtz turned his attention to improving his technique.[2] By 1815 he sold his local business to devote the rest of his life to painting.[3] To learn more about Eichholtz’s history, please visit The National Gallery of Art .

Samuel Markley

     Portrait of Samuel Markley, 1812

Since Eichholtz is a well-known Pennsylvanian artist, we wanted to learn more about the subjects of these three portraits. The portraits depict three men from the Markley family: Samuel, John, and Philip Markley (1789-1834). Based on the design, technique, and material used to create the portraits, we believe the portraits were created at different times in Eichholtz’s career. With dark colors painted onto a wooden panel, the portrait of Samuel Markley demonstrates Eichholtz’s early work. Based on the few records we have on this portrait, we believe it was completed around 1812.

John Markley

                                                            Portrait of John Markley                                                                  


Although we do not know much about Samuel Markley, our research revealed more about John and Philip’s service to Montgomery County. John Markley of Norristown was a Montgomery County sheriff in the late eighteenth century.[4] John was also a prominent member of the Republican Party. Like his father John, Philip Markley pursued a career in politics. From 1819 to 1823, Philip became a State Senator for the seventh district of PA.[5] Our records indicate that Philip’s portrait was completed in 1824, but there is no date given for John’s portrait. Given the improved detail in the portraits, when compared to Samuel’s, it seems likely that John’s portrait was likely finished a few years prior to Philip's.

Philip Markley

Portrait of Philip S. Markley, 1824


[1] National Gallery of Art, Eichholtz, Jacob Biography,

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Pennsylvania State Senate, Philip S. Markley: Biography,

[5] Ibid.

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