Across the road from the Frederick Mennonite Church is the Bertolet Meeting House and Burying Ground. Set aside by the Frey family for family burials in 1725, the burying ground long predates the small meeting house and holds many Frey, Bertolet, and Grubb ancestors.
Heinrich, or Henry, Frey was one of the earliest German settlers in Pennsylvania. He settled in Philadelphia in 1680 where he opened a woodworking shop. According to a legend recorded in The Book of Philadelphia by Robert Shackleton, Frey and his business partner Joseph Plattenbach taught a young Lenni Lenapi man their trades, and in return, he introduced them to his father Chief Tammanend (often called Tammany – as in Tammany Hall in New York). The son was called Minsi Usquerat. Frey and Plattenbach gave gifts to the Leni Lenapi and spent the night with them. The next day, Tammanend took them to the top of a hill and offered them a 1000 acre tract of land in what is now Germantown.
Later, after 1700, Frey bought the land that is now Bertolet Burying Ground from William Penn, as part of a purchase of 650 acres. He moved there with his sons and nephew. In 1725, Henry Frey set aside part of the land for a family burial ground, and after he died in 1734, he was the first burial there.
The name Bertolet came to the area with Jean Bertolet, a French Huguenot who came to Pennsylvania in 1726. His daughter Susanna, married Henry Frey’s grandson Jacob in 1750. After Jacob died in 1770, she sent for her nephew Samuel Bertolet, who finished building the house Jacob had started. In 1777, that house served as the staff headquarters for the Continental Army.
Samuel served in the American Revolution under General Anthony Wayne hauling both supplies and wounded soldiers during the Battle of the Brandywine. He also supplied grain to the army at Valley Forge.
Samuel’s son Daniel was a brickmaker, whose brick went into many of the early buildings of Frederick Township. It was he who proposed founding a Mennonite Meeting House on the land next to the burial ground in 1846. The first meeting was held on May 23, 1847.
The meeting house was closed in 1928 when the advent of the automobile made it possible for Mennonites to travel to large meetings in surrounding communities. However, in 1950, a Mennonite group began using the building for Sunday school, and in 1966, a new building, Frederick Mennonite Church was built across the street.
In 1890, the Bertolet Burying Ground Association was incorporated to maintain the burial ground and the meeting house. The records of the association are part of the Historical Society’s archive.
Last week, I was working through a box of German language booklets and I came across an odd one. First, someone had added a cover to it, with an English title “Notable Squable between Rev. Frederick [sic] Waage and Rev. Daniel Weiser in Montgomery County.” That’s not a translation of the German title, which is “Lichtschäutze oder Hülfe zur Wahrheit.” My best translation is “Cleaning with light, or helping to find reality.” Before delving into 88 pages of text, I decided to see what I could find out about the squabble.
Rev. Friedrich Waage first came to Pennsylvania in 1819 at the age of 22. He was a native of the Duchy of Holstein in what was then Denmark, but is now Germany. He studied at the University of Kiel before emigrating.
From "The Past and Present of St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Red Hill, Pennsylvania" by Raymond A. Kline
He settled in Chester County and began studying for the ministry with Rev. Friedrich Geisenheimer. In 1829, he became pastor of St. Paul’s Lutheran Church in Red Hill. Founded in 1739, Waage was the 12th pastor for the church, which was also known as the “Six Corner” Church. At the time, it was part of the New Goschenhoppen Charge, consisting of five parishes.
From "The Past and Present of St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Red Hill, Pennsylvania" by Raymond A. Kline
Besides serving the spiritual needs of the congregation, Waage was also the county’s first doctor of homeopathic medicine. According to Theordore Bean’s History of Montgomery County, he first became interested in medicine to care for his ten children. He began to practice more widely in 1840.
Rev. Daniel Weiser was born in Selingrove, PA, and a descendant of the famous Conrad Weiser of colonial times. As a young man he served in the War of 1812 and trained as a nailsmith. He was ordained a minister in 1824. In 1833, he came to New Goschenhoppen Reformed church as its pastor.
From A History of the Goshenhoppen Reformed Charge
The squabble, according to Edward Hocker’s 1929 article in the Times-Herald, began when Rev. Waage was invited to give an address at a local Fourth of the July celebration in 1836. At that time, repeated toasts were given at any celebration of the Fourth, and perhaps Rev. Waage took part in some of them. Early in 1837, a Reformed church publication, the Weekly Meesenger, published a letter from Weiser that criticized ministers who cavorted with intemperate people and condoned dancing. Waage believed the piece was referring to him.
Then began the battle of the pamphlets, one of which is here at the Historical Society. In 1838, Weiser brought a libel suit against Waage. An arbitration hearing was held in Sumneytown. The three arbitrators awarded Weiser six cents in damages and ordered Waage to pay $140 in court fees. Most of “Cleaning with Light” is the transcript of these proceedings. Weiser also gives an outline of his views on the Christian life and how he came to write the letter to the Weekly Messenger.
The decision of the court seems to have been the end of the issue. Both men appear in histories of their respective churches and both are in books on the history of the county, like Bean's or Ruoff's. None of them mention the feud, so perhaps it was forgotten. It's possible that the two men even made up themselves. When Waage died in 1884, Weiser's son, Rev. C. Z. Weiser was one of his pallbearers.
I came across Abraham Hunsicker while working through a collection of booklets relating to Mennonites in Montgomery County. Two booklets in particular caught my eye: A Statement of Facts and Summary of Views on Morals and Religion, as Related with Suspension from the Mennonite Meeting (1851) and An Explanation of Incidents that Took Place among the So-Called Mennonites (1854). Both refer to times when Mennonite preachers were cast out of the church in 1850 and 1851.
Abraham Hunsicker was the grandson of Valentine Hunsicker, the family’s immigrant ancestor who came to Pennsylvania from Switzerland in the early eighteenth century. Abraham was born in 1793 in East Perkiomen and raised a Mennonite. All the sources agree that he had little formal schooling. In 1847 he was ordained a preacher, and later that year the church made him a bishop over the Skippack, Providence, and Methacton meeting houses.
It wasn’t long, however, before Abraham started making waves. It began with a sermon by his nephew Abraham Grater. He had been part of an earlier schism that created a group known as the “New Mennonites” (sometimes called the “Oberholtzer group”). This group wanted Mennonites to move more in the wider world, to cooperate with other churches, and to have formal education for church members. Many of the ideas John Oberholtzer suggested seem harmless, like not forcing ministers to wear colonial era clothing, or helpful, like taking minutes at meetings. The leadership of the Franconia Confernece (made up of 22 Mennonite congregations) had no desire to change anything. So, Oberholtzer and others founded the East Pennsylvania Mennonite Conference.
A few years later, Abraham Grater in his booklet, An Explanation of Incidents that Took Place among the So-Called Mennonites, says they are “beyond doubt one of the Six hundred and Sixty six” referred to in Revelation. This time, the issue wasn’t coats or Sunday schools, but who should be allowed to participate in their services. Grater preached in favor of open communion. He refused to renounce the idea when called upon to do so, and Henry Hunsicker (Abraham Hunsicker’s son) supported him. They were excommunicated.
Skippack Mennonite Church
Abraham Hunsicker was of the same progressive mind set. Like Oberholtzer, he agreed that the Mennonites should educate their children. Unlike Oberholtzer, he supported the idea of open communion. In his work, A Statement of Facts and Summary of Views on Morals and Religion, as Related with Suspension from the Mennonite Meeting (written after his own excommunication from the East Pennsylvania Conference) he points out that the Oberholtzer schism was caused by “the too servile reverence, on the customs, which were held in such high repute, as virtually to supersede the worship of God.” Hunsicker goes on to explain his views on both open communion with other Christian churches and his openness to allow members of the congregation to join secret societies (such was the Freemasons).
Hunsicker is a clearer writer than Grater. There is much less quoting of the Book of Revelation, and I think something of his personality comes through. Take this passage for instance:
“Thus ended our [Hunsicker’s and Oberholtzer’s] fellowship and co-operation in the same bond of brotherhood – involuntary on my part, in which we had (to me, at least) jointly labored as faithful stewards. And wherefore? why, simply because I could not in conscience, call that right which my heart called wrong.”
Hunsicker continued to live out his beliefs. He founded the Freeland Institute, a non-sectarian school for boys on his own property, and he was instrumental in founding the Montgomery Female Seminary a few years later. The Freeland Institute eventually became Ursinus College, and the girls’ school became Pennsylvania Female College (the school after which Collegeville is named). He also founded a new church, Trinity Christian Society, which is still in existence as Trinity Reformed United Church of Christ.
By Michael Green
This cemetery in the King of Prussia area contains not only the burial remains of the Roberts family members but also some 190 departed souls from the Mount Zion AME Church in Norristown, Pennsylvania. The burial ground was established by Jonathan Roberts, a United States Senator early in the nineteenth century. He died in 1854 and was buried there. Senator Roberts made provision for the indigent to be buried in the area surrounding the central family plot. It is in this context that we embark on the journey of those of Mount Zion who were buried or reburied in this cemetery.
The journey those Mount Zion parishioners was a long one beginning in 1832 from the early days of the founding of the church. According to the “History of Mt. Zion Church Anniversary Booklet” the church was organized by Mr. and Mrs. John Lewis. The church parishioners were reportedly “runaway slaves” who liberated themselves from the South and migrated to the Norristown area by way of the Underground Railroad.
These early church pioneers established their first building at Airy and Walnut Streets in a dwelling house in 1832. This period of self-determination of reportedly interrupted by slave owners arriving to abduct escaped bondsman and use the legal system to force their return South. As the story goes, two escaped slaves were to be transported South after capture. However, the local black residents and two white citizens protested. The latter paid the enslavers $600 and $300 respectively and successfully procured the men’s freedom. According to the church record, it was during this disruptive time for the Norristown community that a number of the church members fled Norristown to Spring Mill, some even leaving for Canada. Members John and James Lewis held meetings and services in their residences in Spring Mill, near Conshohocken during this time.
In 1845, the church members regrouped in Norristown, purchased land, and built a one story church on Lafayette Street between Chain and Pearl. It was from this location 190 burials were reinterred at the Roberts Cemetery after the property was sold. The church moved in 1853 to Basin Street and again in 1915 to its current location on Willow Street. To this day this edifice exists at the same location.
Once the church congregation moved and with restrictions on where blacks could be buried, the bodies at Mount Zion Cemetery were removed and reinterred at the Roberts Burial Ground in the 1870’s. It should be noted that a number of black Civil War veterans were buried there as late as 1894. Moreover there were many Civil War veterans who were active members of Mount Zion.
In closing, the journey of those interred at Red Hill Cemetery is truly a remarkable one. The story of the Mount Zion Church is crowned by many achievers and achievements to advance voting rights in the 1870’s, Civil Rights in the 1880’s led by Pastor Amos Wilson, as well as improvements in education and the health and welfare of citizens. Not to be forgotten in this story is the commitment to humanity exhibited by the Roberts family whose leader years ago dedicated his land to the benefit of all.