Displaying items by tag: Pennsylvania
Born in Phoenixville in 1843, Samuel Whitaker Pennypacker spent his young adult life studying law. After opening his own law practice in Philadelphia in 1866, Pennypacker explored public service opportunities. He served on the Philadelphia Board of Education and was appointed judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Philadelphia in the late 1880s. In 1902, Pennypacker (Republican) defeated Robert Pattison (Democrat) to become the 23rd Governor of Pennsylvania.
Campaign Pin for Governor Pennypacker
During his time as Governor, Pennypacker addressed problems created by the industrial revolution. One of these problems was the Coal and Iron Police. Prior to the 20th century, Pennsylvania only had localized sheriffs and police. With the rise in Pennsylvanian manufacturing, companies hired private police to secure their property. However, without oversight, many of these private police were used to combat strikes and other worker disputes. Governor Pennypacker saw these private police as unconstitutional and thus created the Pennsylvania State Police. This statewide police force was one of the first in the United States.
In addition to the State Police, Governor Pennypacker appointed the first commissioner of forestry and helped to preserve half a million acres of land. He also established the State Museum of Pennsylvania and oversaw the rebuilding of the State Capitol (which later became the subject of a price gouging scandal).
Book written by Gov. Pennypacker about the PA State Capital. HSMC Collection
One less positive aspect to Governor Pennypacker’s time in office was his poor relationship with the press. Tired of being drawn as a parrot by political cartoonist Charles Nelan, the Governor passed the Salus-Grady law (also known as the anti-cartoon law of 1903). This law banned cartoons that depicted people as animals. According to Governor Pennypacker, the law was designed to make the press more accountable and less driven by newspaper sales. The press claimed the law was a violation of their first amendment rights and proceeded to depict the Governor and other politicians as non-animal objects. The Salus-Grady Bill was ultimately repealed in 1907 after Governor Pennypacker’s term ended.
The law's supporters satirically portrayed as inanimate objects by Walt McDougall. Photo credit: The North American
After his Governorship, Pennypacker returned to practicing law and writing. He died on September 2, 1916 in Schwenksville and is buried in Morris Cemetery.
Cartoons and Cartoonists: Charles Nelan, “Mutual Admiration,” Philadlephia North American, January 29, 1903. The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia. https://philadelphiaencyclopedia.org/archive/cartoons-and-cartoonists/54992_ca_object_representations_media_109963_full_jpeg/
When Cartoonists Were Criminals. Historical Society of Pennsylvania. https://hsp.org/blogs/fondly-pennsylvania/when-cartoonists-were-criminals
Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/portal/communities/governors/1876-1951/samuel-pennypacker.html
We recently put some new paintings on display in our Reading Room at HSMC. One of them is a portrait of former Pennsylvania Governor David Rittenhouse Porter. In 1838, Porter ran against incumbent Governor Joseph Ritner and won by roughly 5000 votes. Porter’s victory shocked the Anti-Masonic Whigs, causing Burrowes (Chairman of the Whig Committee) to demand an investigation of what he believed to be a fraudulent election. Burrowes instructed supporters of Governor Ritner to “treat the election held on the 9th of October as if it had never taken place.”
Governor David Rittenhouse Porter, HSMC Collection
When the Philadelphia votes were tallied, it was revealed that the legal voting returns from the Northern Liberties District (representing about 5000 voters) were withheld at the request of defeated Democratic candidate for the U.S. House of Representatives, Charles J. Ingersoll. He claimed he lost due to voter fraud since the tally books from the sixth and seventh wards were lost. In response to Ingersoll, six of the seventeen voting return judges submitted their own voting results, which favored the Anti-Masonic Whig candidates. As a result, both parties submitted separate voting results on the State House floor and elected their own Speakers for the State House of Representatives.
Similar problems were found in the State Senate. When Senators were denied their seats due to fraudulent voter returns, a crowd of angry onlookers threatened violence against Anti-Mason Whig leaders Burrows, Stevens, and Penrose. This caused the men to flee the State Senate floor by jumping out a window. The Norristown Herald and Free Press and other papers claimed the mob was led by Philadelphia Loco-Focos. 
Norristown Herald and Free Press, December 12, 1838
The scene became increasingly unstable when the PA State Arsenal was taken by Anti-Mason Whig supporters. Governor Ritner called for the PA militia to be sent to Harrisburg to keep the peace. When General Patterson arrived with his troops in Harrisburg, he was asked if he would support Governor Ritner and the Anti-Mason Whig leaders. Patterson proclaimed that “he had not come for political purposes” and would only act if actual physical violence broke out among the angry crowds. Governor Ritner even appealed to President Van Burren to help put an end to the situation in Harrisburg. The President denied Governor Ritner help, deeming the situation as one that must be settled by the State of Pennsylvania. Without a federal supply of troops or ammunititon, Governor Ritner ordered thirteen rounds of buckshot cartridges to be given to the State troops, giving this event its name.
Photograph courtesy of Capital Preservation Committee and John Rudy Photography
Ultimately, a group of Anti-Mason Whig Representatives joined their Democratic counterparts, giving the Democrats the majority in the State House of Representatives. This settled the major disputes in the Legislature and allowed Governor Porter to be inaugurated as the ninth Governor of Pennsylvania.
Egle, William Henry, M.D. “The Buckshot War,” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography Vol. XXIII 1899 No. 2, p. 143 https://www.jstor.org/stable/20085847?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents
 Norristown Herald and Free Press, October 17, 1838, page 2.
 Norristown Herald and Free Press, December 12, 1838, page 2.
 Egle, William Henry, M.D. “The Buckshot War,” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography Vol. XXIII 1899 No. 2, p. 151 https://www.jstor.org/stable/20085847?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents